Eurofighter-2000 Typhoon

The Eurofighter Typhoon (EF-2000) is a result of joint efforts on the part of UK, Germany, Italy and Spain to develop a 5th Generationfighter capable of engaging all contemporary threats like the Flankerand Fulcrum series of fighters. The aircraft was designed with AirDominance as its primary mission, and ground attack being thesecondary. To achieve better combat performance than the enemy fighters, the Eurofighter Typhoon had to be endowed with features like unstable design, carefree handling, advanced sensor suite and defensive counter-measures, ultra long-range missiles and a top-end cockpit.

DESIGN

To achieve high instantaneous and sustained performance, the configuration chosen was Delta wings with canards. This unstable design is controlled by an advanced quadruplex Active Control Technology (ACT) fully digital system. The canardsare placed closer to the nose, unlike the ones in Rafale and Gripen.This allows an increase in AoA, with a little compromise in sidewaysview from the canopy. The sturdy structure of the Typhoon allows it tooperate from rough airfields.AVIONICS SUITE
Attack and Identification System (AIS)
From the very beginning, the Eurofighter Typhoon (EF-2000) was designed to employ a high level of sensor-fusion to help reduce pilot workload during combat. This allows the Eurofighter Typhoon pilot to create a better picture of the whole combat scenario and therefore he can act in a better manner.Combining all data streams from the major on-board sensorsconjunction with any information obtained from external and off-boardplatforms such as JSTARS, ASTOR, AWACS or even otherEurofighter's via the Multi-function Information Distribution System,the AIS gives pilots unprecedented awareness of the situation in thesky and allows them to concentrate on their task to carry out themission. Equipments such as the DASS, navigation, ACS and communications are also integrated into the AIS.
ECR-90 CAPTOR
The CAPTOR radar is the primary sensor of theTyphoon. It is a third generation coherent X-band (8 to 12 GHz)multi-mode Pulse Doppler system developed from GEC's Harrier FA.2 BlueVixen system. Some features of the CAPTOR system are -
• It uses DAS (Data Adaptive Scanning) to provide accurate information on selected targets and minimizes unnecessary antenna movement.
• For Close Combat, CAPTOR switches to High Precision Single Target Track.
• The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode offered by Tranche-1 Eurofighter's gives a 1m resolution (with improvement due in Tranche-2)
• The CAPTOR is mechanically scanned radar, yet it is able tointerleave different modes due to exceptional scan rates (credited tothe Low inertia non-counterbalanced antenna coupled with four hightorque, high precision samarium-cobalt drive motors)
• To increase effectiveness in a heavy ECM situation, the CAPTOR has a dedicated Third Channel to screen ECM sources. When performance degradation is detected in the radar, the AIS compensates by using other sensors.
• 61 Shop Replaceable Items (or SRIs) and around 6 Line ReplaceableUnits (or LRUs) enable the CAPTOR to be upgraded easily and give aquick maintenance turn-around.
• Tests conducted in 1997 showed that CAPTOR could trackfighter-sized targets at a range of 160 kms. While this seems anexaggerated range for mechanically scanned radar, the range of theCAPTOR radar is bound to be impressive.
• Capable of tracking 20 targets, the CAPTOR has a range accuracy of 10m, and can obtain a target angle within 1 mm.
In the coming years, the CAPTOR will be replaced by AMSAR (AirborneMulti-mode Solid-state Active-array Radar). This radar will equip boththe European fighters - the Typhoon and the Rafale (France).
PIRATE IRST
In the modern combat scenario, an aircraftconstantly using its radar is target practice for the enemy. To reducethe usage of radar, a few measures or a combination of these measuresis followed. First is the use of secure-datalinks to downloadinformation from sources such as AWACS, JSTARS, GC and even otherfighters having this capability. Second is to use Passive systems likeInfrared sensors, something that the Russian fighters have been usingsince a long time.
PIRATE system in the Eurofighter Typhoon (EF-2000)  is designed to allow the Eurofighter to scan the airspace covertly. If a target is found, radar can beopened and an attack can be commenced. It incorporates both a ForwardLooking Infra Red (FLIR) and Infra Red Search and Track (or IRST)capability. The system itself utilizes a highly sensitive Infra Redsensormounted to the port side of the canopy. This equipment scans acrosswavelengths from 3 to 11 ┬Ám in two bands. This allows the detection ofboth the hot exhaust plumes of jet engines as well as surface heatingcaused by friction. Super cooling thesensor can allow detection of evensmall variations in temperature detected at long range. Although nodefinitive ranges have been released an upper limit of 80nm has beenhinted at, a more typical figure would be 30 to 50nm. The actual outputfrom the system can be directed to any of the Multi-function Head DownDisplays mounted within the cockpit. Additionally the image can beoverlaid on both the Helmet Mounted Sight and Head Up Display.
The IIR sensor is stabilized within its mount so that it can maintain a target within its field ofview. Up to 200 targets can be simultaneously tracked by the systemusing one of several different modes; Multiple Target Track (MTT),Single Target Track (STT), Single Target Track Identification (STTI),Sector Acquisition and Slaved Acquisition.
This system allows the Typhoon to attack target without the use ofCAPTOR. Additionally, it allows the Typhoon to engage targets in theheaviest of ECM conditions.
ARMAMENT
One of most striking features of the Eurofighter Typhoon (EF-2000) is its internal cannon. It is equipped with a single MauserGmbH developed BK-27 cannon mounted internally in the fuselage forwardof the starboard wing. It utilizes 27mm high explosive shells with amaximum firing rate of some 1700 rounds a minute; each aircraft willlikely carry approximately 150 rounds.
The weapon apparently looks weaker than the 20mm M-61 cannon with a rate of 6000 rounds a minute. But in a fast dogfight, the Mauserwill pour 4 kg of ammo in 0.5 seconds while M-62 would have poured only2 kg. By the time M-61 reaches full firing rate, the target may bemoved considerably. This is particularly if the pilot wishes to takesnap-shots.
Due to cannon's ability to engage moving targets swiftly and withaccuracy, the system was fitted with an automatic firing mode. When theradar solution shows that the target is passing through theline-of-fire of the cannon, it will fire a burst of 27mm and this canbe quite helpful in maneuvering fights.
The primary BVR weapon of the Eurofighter Typhoon (EF-2000) will bethe MBDA Meteor rocket-ramjet powered BVRAAM with range well over 100kms. The missile will be guided using a mix of mid-course correctionusing data-link, inertial guidance and active radar in terminal stage.
The primary close-combat weapon of the Typhoon will be the AIM-132ASRAAM 4th generation AAM. The missile has the capability to engagetargets that are high off-boresight. When used with the HMS, it forms aformidable weapon system.
Other air-air weapons include AIM-9 Sidewinder, AIM-120 AMRAAM, Skyflash, Aspide and IRIS-T.
In air-ground mode, the Eurofighter Typhoon (EF-2000) employs themost modern line of precision guided bombs and standoff missiles. Itsarsenal includes Storm Shadow and Taurus standoff missiles, Harpoon andPenguin AShMs, ALARM and HARM ARMs, Brimstone anti-vehicle missile,JDAM and LGBs, BL-755 and DWS-39.
SELF-DEFENSE
The Eurofighter Typhoon (EF-2000) utilizes the DAC(Defensive Aids Computer) to create a 360-degree coverage of allthreats around the aircraft. The DAC fuses all information from theRWR, MAW and LWR (RAF only).
While the current MAW is an active system, the PIMAW is underdevelopment, which will allow detection of missile command linkspassively. The LWR or Laser Warning Receiver is unique to the RAFTyphoon and allows the system to detect and Lasers that are beingdirected on the aircraft. This takes away the covert attack capabilitypossessed by Laser-Range Finder and IRST equipped Fulcrum and Flankerseries of aircrafts.
Apart from these systems, the Typhoon uses standard Chaff and Flaredispensers, ECM system and also Towed Decoys to defeat any incomingweapons.

PROPULSION

The EJ200 is an advanced design based on a fullymodular augmented twin-spool low bypass layout. At its maximum drythrust of 60kN (or 13,500lbf) the EJ200's SFC is in the order of23g/kN.s. With reheat the engine delivers around 90-100kN (or20,250-22,500lbf) of thrust with an SFC of some 49g/kN.s.
The engine allows the Eurofighter Typhoon (EF-2000) to achievesuper-sonic speed (up to Mach 1.5) without the use of re-heat and alsogives the it a very high Thrust-to-weight ratio, a factor that is vitalin all forms of air combat.

Eurofighter Typhoon Specifications

Wing Span
10.95m
Length
14.96m
Height
5.28m
Wing Area
50m²
Fore plane Area
2.4m²
Empty Weight
9750 kg (approx)
Internal Fuel Load
4000 kg (approx)
External Store Load
6500 kg (approx)
Max T/O Weight
21000 kg
Power
·      2 EJ200 Turbofan Engines
·      20,000 lbf (90 kN) each with Afterburner
·      13,500 lbf (60 kN) each without Afterburner
Maximum Speed
2125 km/hr
Time to 10670m
2.5 minutes
Runway Requirement
700m
T/O run
·      300m
·      Air combat mission
Combat Radius
·      Ground attack, lo-lo-lo: 601 km
·      Ground attack, hi-lo-hi: 1389 km
·      Air defense with 3hr CAP: 185 km
·      Air defense with 10-min loiter: 1389 km
G Limits
+9/-3 w/ internal fuel and two AIM-120
Weapons & Stores
·      Internally mounted 27mm Mauser gun
·      Total of 13 external stores stations: 5 (incl one wet) under fuselage and 4 (incl one wet) under each wing
·      Mix of Beyond Visual Range Air-to-Air Missiles (BVRAAM) and Short-Range Air-to-Air Missiles (SRAAM) carried externally
·      Four BVRAAM under fuselage in semi-conformal carriage configuration
·      Laser guided bombs
·      Advanced anti-armour weapons
·      Conventionally armed stand-off missiles
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