It has been one of the most dramatic and universal changes in military“tactics, techniques and procedures” in history. From a single,barebones “eye in the sky” over Iraq in1992 to “persistentintelligence, surveillance,and reconnaissance” (ISR) a decade laterto“persistent strike” tomorrow, the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) hasbecome an absolute necessity to war fighters of all nations, allservices, all ranks.
The American military and other world Armed services are now seems tobe acquiring a effective fleet of battlefield UAVs. The world armedservices are entering a new era in which UAVs will be critical tocombat operations, with the machines carrying imaging reconnaissance orSIGINT payloads, relaying the data over high-bandwidth data links inreal time to ground, air, sea, and space platforms. This trend had beenemerging before the American war in Afghanistan in 2001-2002, but wasgreatly accelerated by the use of UAVs in that conflict.
UAVs were the fastest-growing segment of the aerospace sector in 2008,with a worldwide value of more than $3.4 billion (USD). More than 42countries have gone on record as producing at least one UAV airframe,and nearly 1,000 systems exist today, worldwide. 262 Producers of UAVs- 42 Countries. Europe 18, UAVS Research and Development BY 49countries Europe 21, Future UAVs producing countries in 2010 9, Europe5.
Unmanned systems murdering civilians is counter-productive to winninghearts & minds and actually makes more rebels. It is noted that themilitary UAV market was worth US$250million in 1992, rapidly increasingto US$600million in 1997, but projected to level off at US700million in2002. However, it is noted that the civilian UAV market is projected toincrease from the insignificant level in 1997 to an incredibleUS$500million in 2002.
Predators originally were designed for reconnaissance and surveillance,but now some are armed with ¬laser-¬guided Hellfire missiles. A massivechange has thus occurred in the airspace above wars. Only a handful ofdrones were used in the 2003 invasion of Iraq, with just one supportingall of V Corps, the primary U.S. Army combat force. Today there aremore than 5,300 drones in the U.S. military’s total inventory. Themilitary has dozens of Predators in Iraq and Afghanistan. In all itoperates 5,000 drones, 25 times more than it had in 2001.
The US`s National Defense Authorization Fiscal Year 2001 legislationdeclared `It shall be a goal of the Armed Forces to achieve thefielding of unmanned, remotely controlled technology such that ... by2010, one-third of the aircraft in the operational deep strike forceaircraft fleet are unmanned. Establish a plan to develop a newland-based, long-range strike force by 2018, of which about 45 percentwould be unmanned; to expand maritime aviation to include unmannedaircraft for both surveillance and strike missions
Annually investing hundreds of millions of dollars in developing andadvancing UAV technology for its own use and export, the US program isprojected to be $10 billion from 2003 to 2010.
The Netherlands is not the only nation to employ Israeli unmannedaerial vehicles (UAVs) in foreign occupation. They are also utilized byCanadian, US, UK and Australian forces in Afghanistan and Iraq.
In fiscal year 2002, U.S. military drones (both killer and unarmed)flew 27,201 hours, according to a recent Congressional report. Byfiscal year 2007, that figure had increased ten-fold, to 258,502 hours.In the first eight months of fiscal year 2008, the drones had logged230,000 hours. . The longest declassified Predator flight was 40 hours,5 minutes
UAV usage across all the military services jumped from nearly 165,000flight hours in the 2006 fiscal year, to more than 258,000 for thefiscal year that ended Sept. 30, 2007. The total flight time hasreached 400 thousand hours as of march 2009
Pentagon's inventory of unmanned aerial systems has leapt from about200 in 2002 to nearly 6,000 in 2008, For the 2008 fiscal year, theDefense Department has a $15 billion budget just for unmanned systems
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) continue to be the most dynamic growthsector of the world aerospace industry, 2009 market study estimatesthat UAV spending will almost double over the next decade from currentworldwide UAV expenditures of $4.4 billion annually to $8.7 billionwithin a decade, totaling just over $62 billion in the next ten years.
The Army has five types of UAVs. In 2006, there were about 1,870 ArmyUAVs, and that number is expected to grow to about 4,200 by late 2008.Army UAVs are used mostly to spot enemy movements and roadside bombs
The Air Force flies two major UAV systems known as the Predator and theGlobal Hawk. Both operate at high altitudes and carry a wide range ofweapons to attack enemy armor, trucks and troops.
Recently released “The Market for UAV Reconnaissance Systems,” whichclaims that the total UAV market including air vehicles, ground controlequipment and payloads is expected to be worth $13.6 billion through2014. More than 9,000 UAVs are expected to be purchased over the next10 years by countries in every region of the world, and ForecastInternational does not include funding for RDT&E and operations andmaintenance in its analysis.
The study suggests that the US will account for 72% of the worldwideRDT&E spending on UAV technology over the next decade, and about61% of the procurement. "We expect that the sales of UAVs will followrecent patterns of high-tech arms procurement worldwide, with Europerepresenting the second largest market, followed very closely byAsia-Pacific.
To put funding in perspective, the DOD’s FY04 budget includes around $1billion for all UAV spending, but more than $5.5 billion for just threeshort-range manned fighter programs. On the other hand, this UAVfunding is up from only $360 million in FY01 and $760 million in FY02.
International UAV market analyses have estimated the total value of theglobal UAV Systems market to be worth in excess of US$19.5 billion overthe next six years (1998 to 2003).
“Nearly 8000 unmanned air-vehicles (UAVs) worth $3.9 billion wereproduced worldwide between 1994 and 2003. The reconnaissance market isexpected to double in size over the ten-year period, UAV annualforecast., estimates that 5250 target drones worth $1.3 billion and2650 reconnaissance systems worth $2.6 billion were procured during thedecade. The estimate does not consider the cost of related hardwaresuch as ground-control stations. It only covers air-vehicle costs,which constitute as little as 15% of many UAV systems.”
Many years of bombing have preceded this bombing year 36,000 bombingraids in 2008 and an estimated 144,000 resistance fighters killed intheir own countries - by invaders - in the first 11 months of 2008,37,034 bombing raid in Iraq and Afghanistan in 2008.
Today, no less than 45 countries fly hundreds of different UAV models;in the U.S. alone, there are approximately 280 companies, academicinstitutions, and government groups developing more than 200 differentUAV designs ranging in price from $1000 to $26 million dollars
japan, leads in commercial UAV use with approximately 2000 unmannedhelicopters spraying fields for pest abatement or seeding crops.
Worldwide, these UAVs range in size from the palm-size Black Widow“micro” UAV spy plane (6 inch. in diameter, 1.5 oz) to NorthropGrumman’s RQ-4/Global Hawk (weighing in at 25,600 lb).DOD issued theUnmanned Systems Roadmap 2007-2032 (Roadmap), UAS programs. In 2001,for example, the Undersecretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology,and Logistics created the joint Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Planning TaskForce to serve as a joint advocate for developing and fielding UAS.
Establish a plan to develop a new land-based, long-range strike forceby 2018, of which about 45 percent would be unmanned; to expandmaritime aviation to include unmanned aircraft for both surveillanceand strike missions
DOD’s funding plans for UAS reflect their growing importance to thedepartment. In fiscal year 2009, DOD requested approximately $3.5billion for UAS procurement and research and development—approximately$1 billion more than the department’s fiscal year 2008 request, DODplans to make additional investments in UAS programs from fiscal years2010 through 2017.
From 2008-2017 USA is going to spend US$18,577 million for UAVsProcument .Europe is going to spend US$ 40.47 billion from 2008-20017
From July 2005 to June 2006, the 15th Reconnaissance Squadronparticipated in more than 242 separate raids, engaged 132 troops incontact-force protection actions, fired 59 Hellfire missiles; surveyed18,490 targets, escorted four convoys, and flew 2,073 sorties for morethan 33,833 flying hours
During Operation DESERT STORM, UAVs were successfully employed by theArmy, Navy, and Marine Corps to provide NRT day/night RSTA, BDA, andbattlefield management. UAVs TYPE year used 1991 Kuwait,Iraq(1)RQ-2Pioneer (2) FQM-151 Pointer , UAVs proved to be fair weather aircraft.During Operation DESERT STORM in 1991, rain eroded the laminated woodpropellers of Pioneer UAVs.11 During the 1990s, precipitation, fog, andcrosswinds often prevented safe takeoffs and landings. Lightweight UAVssuch as the Predator, the Hunter, and the Pioneer were less able tocope with high winds than heavier manned aircraft. a Pioneer flyingover northeastern Saudi Arabia detected the Iraqi attack on Khafji,enabling U.S. air strikes to decimate the invaders. Pioneers alsoserved as artillery spotters for a battleship in the Persian Gulf.
MARTs were used successfully for reconnaissance and target acquisition,and were the only entirely European-built UAVs used over Iraq duringthe 1991 Gulf War
UAVs Station in Bosnia in 93-96 by different countries. France-Crecerrelle, UN- Fox NET, USA- (1) Gnat750,(2)Pioneer,(3)Predator
Kosovo war 98-99.France (1) CL-289(2) Crecerrelle.Germany CL-289.Unitedkingdom Phoenix’s.USA (1) Pioneer(2) predator(3)Hunter. Kosovo -05Belgium Hunter .Djibouti/Yemen -02 ,predator.East Timor -02 AustraliaAeroSonde III.Solomon Islands-03 Australia (1)AeroSonde III (2) Avator.
Afghanistan UAVs Station by different countries 2001- 2009. Australia(1)Scan Eagle.Canada (1) Sperwer(2)Sky Lork.France (1)Skorpio(2)Sperwer(3) SIDM interim medium-altitude.Germany(1)Aladin(2)Luna.Netherland (1) Aladin(2) Skylork(3)Sperwer.UAE(1)S-100.United Kingdom (1) Desert hawk(2)Herti (3)Predator B.USA (1)Dragon eye(2)Global- hawk(3)pointer(4)Predator (5) shadow(6)Reaper(7)Sea scout.Poland Sky Lark. Orbiter mini UAVs
Iraq, UAVs station by different countries 2003-2009.Australia(1)Scan-Eagle(2)Sky-lork.Italy (1) Predator. Japan (1) RMAX.Romania (1)Shadow-600.UK(1)DesertHawk(2)Hermes-450,(3)phoenix.USA(1)Desert-Hawk(2)Scan-Eagle(3)Dragon-eye(4)Global- Hawk(5)IGnat(6)Hunter(7)Pioneer(8)predator(9)Reaper(10)Puma(11)Raven(12) Tern (13)Shadow-200(14)Silver-fox(15)Snow-Goose(16)Wasp.
UAVs Station in different countries by other countries.Angolo 2003-2009,IL Contract(1) Aerostar.South-Korea 2003 ,USA(1)Shadow 200.IVORY Coast04 IL Contract,Aerostar.Ivory Coast 2006 ,France (1)skorpio.DR Congo,Belgium(1) Hunter. Lebanon 2006,FRANCE (1) sperwer.Kosovo 2007France(1)sperwer.Chad-08,France(1)SkyLark.
UAVs provided a large percentage of the tactical reconnaissanceconducted in Kosovo. Most UAVs were operating at much lower altitudesthan manned aircraft—only a few thousand feet. Yet both the dollar andhuman costs of this 25:2 loss ratio were still far greater for themanned aircraft (even without including the cost of rescue operations).Tactical UAVs, with sensors, cost only about 1/100th as much as amanned platform
Drones" were lost by NATO USA during the war in Yugoslavia.UnitedStates: 17 (3 Predators, 9 Hunters, 4 Pioneers, 1 UAV of undeterminedtype) Germany: 7 (presumably all CL-289 turbojet drones) France: 5 (3Crecerelle, 2 CL-289) Britain: 14 (14 Phoenix) 4 UAVs of undeterminedorigin (possibly U.S., German, or Italian) (Sources French Le Mondenewspaper, http://uav.navair.navy.mil)
The total bill to U.S. taxpayers for lost drones in Afghanistan is over$55 million. The Global Hawk is manufactured by Northrup Grumman atRancho Bernardo, CA, at a cost of $15 million each, while the PredatorRQ-1 is made in San Diego, California, by General Atomics, with a unitprice tag of $ 4.5 million
Drones Lost in Afghan Theater, 2001-2002
In fact, about one-third of the 65 Predators which had been built byearly 2002 had crashed. A report in Defense Week in May 2002 noted thatof a fleet of 65 in total, 23 Predator drones [or 35 percent] had gonedown -- nine were shot down, eight experienced mechanical problemsand/or bad weather, and six losses were chalked up to human error
Global Hawk unit cast $ 15 million deployed 2 ,Crashed 2 , % destroyed100. Predator unit cast $ 4.5 million Deployed 12,,Crashed 2 , 100.Predator unit cast $ 4.5 million Deployed 12,crashed 6,destroyed 50%.
Iraq UAVs crash including 76 UAVs (mostly British+USA) alone in2003-2004. Iraq war started in March 2003, it had 14 unmanned aerialvehicles (UAVs); it now has about 700 in Iraq and Afghanistan, most ofthem small. In 2003 and 2004, the Army flew the aircraft about 1,500hours per month,. In2005, the aircraft flew 9,000 hours a month.'in2007 Predator flight hours are expected to exceed 70,000 hours, morethan triple the total in 2003, the war's first year. Of the 139Predators delivered to the Air Force, 53 have been lost till 2007
To meet the surge in demand, the Air Force is ramping up its trainingpipeline, growing its training capacity from 160 new crews per year to360 by 2010 with the opening of new training schools at Holloman AirForce Base, N.M., and March Air Reserve Base, Calif.
Hunter and Shadow training is 12 weeks and Sky Warrior training is 25weeks. As of October, the Army had trained 3,200 UAV enlisted.Crewmembers are trained at the Air Force Predator school, whichgraduated 105 crews in 2006. The Air Force expects 120 two-member crewswill graduate in 2007 and 148 in 2008. It takes about three months totrain a crew.
On the airborne side, four systems--the Raven, the Shadow, the Hunterand the Sky Warrior--have logged more than 300,000 hours duringOperation Iraqi Freedom. When that operation first started, "you couldmeasure the (use of) unmanned aircraft systems in maybe tens of hours aday,"By 2005, that number had climbed to about 100 hours per day, andnow that figure has reached about 500 hours per day.
185 UA losses were recorded, 1991-2003. An average of 14.2 per year.Considering the specific periods of major conflict; 20 RQ-2 Pioneer UAwere lost in Desert Storm over a period of less than a year, 18 werecombat losses and two were non-combat losses. In Operation Allied Forcein Kosovo, 47 UA of various types were lost. Of the 45 losses, 28 werecombat and 19 were non-combat.
47 drones lost by the US military and air force in the past six years, 67% went down due to operator error, so at £5m each .
12 key members of Unmanned Vehicle Systems (UVS) International drovethe formation of the Euro UAV ICB, namely: QinetiQ (UK), ADSE (TheNetherlands), Dassault Aviation (France), EADS Defence & SecuritySystems (DS) (France & Germany), Saab (Sweden), and Sagem (France)newly formed Euro UAV Industry Consultation Body (ICB). The companies -Vigilance BV, (The Netherlands), EADS Socata, (France), Thales Sensors,(UK), Thales Airborne Systems, (France), Thales Avionics, (France),Logstar Aviacion, (Spain), TRC AB, (Sweden), Blyenburgh & Co,(France) –
Austrian models(1) Schiebel Camcopter S-100, reconnaissance. Schiebelof Austria has developed a helicopter mini-UAV named the "CamCopter5.1", which was evaluated by such customers as the US Air Force as partof studies in developing improved defenses from terrorist attacks onmilitary installations. It has also been tested by the United StatesArmy for use in landmine detection, using both infrared and groundpenetrating radar sensors. The CamCopter 5.1 has been delivered to theUS military, France, and the Egyptian Navy. To date, no procurement isknown to have been made, UAVs for LawEnforcement and Border Protectionpurpose.
The German Ministry of Defense (MoD) recently selected the verticaltakeoff and landing (VTOL) CAMCOPTER S-100 UAV system from Schiebel(Vienna, Austria) for its Navy fleet. CAMCOPTER is fabricated withcarbon/epoxy prepregs from Advanced Composites Group Ltd. (ACG, RoverTJ125 turbojet with 510 N (52 kg / 114 lb) thrust. It was launched by aRATO booster and recovered by parachute
Belgian models (1) EPERVIER drone (1969) It was built by ManufactureBelge De Lampes Et De Materiel Electronique SA (MBLE) of Belgium.Epervier prototypes were propeller-driven, but the production EpervierUAV, the "X.5" model, was fitted with. Belgium(1) Flying Cam(2)B-HUNTER (UAV) (2002) has 18 but two crashed one DR CONGO in 2008and 2nd was in belgium. Belgium has also extended its use of UAVs forpollution detection and in assisting with forest fire detection, andlooking at how to integrate UAVs into Air Traffic Control systems.
Bulgarian models (1)RUM-1, target (1967) (2)RUM-2, target (1967)(3)RUM-2M, target (1969) (4)RUM-2MB, target (1971) (5)M-200, target(1971) (6)UtRUM, targer (1974) (7)P-200, target (1975) (8)Yastreb-1,target (1978) (9)Yastreb-2, target (1981) (11)Yastreb-3,target (1982)(12)NITI (2006)
Chinese (PRC) models The People’s Liberation Army Air Force is believedto be making steady progress in adopting and adapting more moderntechnologies in China’s domestic military UAV programs, includinginitial moves into the development of combat UAVs (UCAVs). Whiledetails are difficult to verify, the WuZhen-9 stealthy reconnaissanceUAV (also designated as WZ-9 and WZ- 2000) is, in outward appearance, avirtual clone of the U.S. Global Hawk, although considerablysmaller.China has different UAVs Manufacturing companies (1) BeijingWisewell Avionics Science and Technology Company has 2 UAVs model(2)CAIC has 2 UAVs model.(3) Xi'An ASN Technology Group has 4 UAVsmodel.(3) Xi'An ASN Technology Group has 4 UAVs MODEL
(1)ChangKong-1, target, reconnaissance (1966) (2)ChangKong-2 Animprovement of the Changkon-1 Maneuverable Drone, the ultra-lowaltitude variant, was developed by Nanjing Aeronautical Institute. Likethe former, the drone was designed for missile testing, in this casefor low-altitude air-to-ground missiles.approved in (1989)
(3)ASN-206 Its primary military applications reportedly are day andnight reconnaissance, battlefield surveillance, target location,artillery fire correction, and battle damage assessment. (4)WuZhen-5 InNovember 1972, the WZ 5 pilotless aircraft made its first successfuldeployment from a Tu-4 and was certified after a test flight in May1978. In the test, the WZ-5 had a flight time of 3 hours, 14 minutesand had a range of 2,380 km. The WZ-5 was certified for delivery to theChinese military in December 1980 (4)WZ-2000, reconnaissance (2003)(6)Xianglong Unmanned Reconnaissance Aerial Vehicle, militaryreconnaissance (2009(7) W-50 UAV(8)
Combined with Predator-sized UAVs that also may be designed for weaponsdelivery as well as S/R missions, China has demonstrated a growingpotential to bring U.S.-style unmanned combat assets to any futureconflict. The country also has become an exporter of UAVs to suchcountries as Bangladesh, Egypt, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Zambia,and Zimbabwe, through the efforts of the government owned ChinaNational Aero Technology Import and Export Corporation.
France continues to dominate the UAV landscape in Europe, with some 50different platforms or variants in domestic production and a role indozens of programs for other nations. One of the earliest was the Altec"Mini-Avion de Reconnaissance Telepilote (MART)" series, with the MARTII serving with French forces in the Gulf War.France top UAVsManufacturing companies (1) DSTU (Dassault Aviation) has 5 UAVs model(2) EADS DS has 9 UAVs MODEL (3) ECT Industries has one UAVs MODEL(4)Onéra has one UAVs MODEL (5) Survey-Copter has one UAVs MODEL (6) Sagemhas 9 UAVs model(7) Alcore Technologies has 4 UAVs model (8) PY Designhas one UAVs model.(9) Tecknisolar-Seni has 4 UAVs model.
French models The French Sagem firm developed a medium-sized UAV,derived from the popular Meggitt Banshee target, known as the"Crecerelle" ("Kestrel" or "Sparrowhawk") SAGEM is now selling animproved derivative of the Crecerelle named the "Sperwer", and it isbeing operated by the Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark, France, and Greece.The Swedes call it the "Ugglan (Owl)".Canada also buy Sperwer (1)SAGEMSperwer, reconnaissance
(2)Dassault AVE-D Petit Duc, research (2000) It was flown for the firsttime eight years ago (July 2000), designed to test and validationadvanced Uninhabited Air Vehicles (UAV), stealth designs and autonomousflight. As part of this stealth design evaluation, a tail-less versionof the aircraft designated AVE-C was flown in June 2003. According toDassault, the flight marks a significant first for the company,confirming its expertise in Uninhabited Air Vehicles. AVE-D autonomousflight demonstration for DGA: June 30, 2008
(3)Dassault AVE-C Moyen Duc, research (2001) The two first vehicles,AVE-D and AVE-C, are scale model 1/100 (50kg) and 1/10 (500kg) stealth"tactical drones" (UAV), while the final version was to be a full scale(5,000kg) prototype stealth "combat drone" (UCAV). Each vehicle wasgiven an owl name as "Duc" ("duke") is the French name of a nocturnalbird of prey specie known in Latin as Otus aka Scops owl. Petit Duc("small duke") stands for Scops Owl, Moyen Duc ("medium duke") standsfor Long-eared Owl and Grand Duc ("large duke") is Eagle Owl. OtherDassault aircraft with bird names are the Dassault MD 315 Flamant(Flamingo) and the Dassault Falcon (Falcon) family.
(4)Dassault-Sagem SlowFast, reconnaissance (2004) The Dassault-SagemSlowFast is a tactical stealth UAV concept designed by the Frenchunmanned aircraft manufacturer Dassault-Sagem Tatical UAV in 2004.TheSlowFast is an evolution of the twin-engine tactical UAV Dassault AVE-CMoyen Duc. The SlowFast designation comes from its versatility toperform high-speed reconnaissance flight (Mach 1.6) and 3-4 hoursautonomy low-speed (120 kt) observation mission. Its ground station isbased on the Sagem Sperwer's model. The drone was designed after theFrench Army's needs and is planned to be used by the Ground Forcedivisions
(5)Verhagen X2 Autonomous Helicopters, flycam reconnaissance (2008(6)Flying-Robots FR102, softs wings based (2008) Paris-based FlyingRobots also sells inflatable-wing UAS. The company began in 2004 andits aircraft are now on the markethe company's FR102 can carry up to250 kilograms (551 pounds) for 12 to 24 hours, a performance levelsimilar to the SnowGoose. The company has sold one system to France'sspecial forces, which are evaluating it, and another to China. theFR102 is particularly suited to pipeline inspection and the company istalking with several large petroleum firms about that use.
(7)MART-ll MARTs were used successfully for reconnaissance and targetacquisition, and were the only entirely European-built UAVs used overIraq during the 1991 Gulf War. Altec Industries purchased all rights tothe MART air vehicle in August 1991, and became the prime contractorfor the MART Mk II system. The Mk II was based on in-the-field lessonsfrom the Gulf War (8) ALTEC (9) Matra BAE Dynamics developed a UAVnamed "Dragon", no relation to the BAI Dragon.
(9) The Tracker system allowing the user to see behind a hill, theTracker very short-range UAV system is dedicated to intelligencegathering for the infantry. Simple and rustic, the unit is carried in abackpack and can be operated by just two soldiers. Its design allows itto reach a speed of 100 km and a maximum altitude of 2 km. The TrackerUAV can be used for detection, reconnaissance, identification,classification and tracking.(10) Scorpio Scorpio UAVs is simple,low-cost systems, well adapted to urban zones and partitioned areas. Itis equipped with a gyro-stabilised turret and can carry out missions inall weather conditions. The payload includes EO/IR, TV andcommunication relays. the Scorpio, which weighs less than 15 kg,
(11) Surveyor-600. The Surveyor-600 will be able to rapidly adjust itsspeed according to the needs of the mission. It will accommodate a 65-kg payload, including EO/IR, TV, ESM/ECM sensors and radars as well asa laser designator. The system will integrate the latest datainterpretation and fusion technologies. The device will carry outsurveillance of strategic points as well as identification andclassification of targets. It will have the capability of targeting andeven launching smart sub-ammunitions.(12) Surveyor-2500
This 5.50 metre-long and 1.50 metre-high UAV will be able to carry outall kinds of missions, from surveillance to reconnaissance, control,and even communication relay. Its 12-hour endurance gives it a range of200 km, and the device has a data link capability of up to 185 km. Itwill also be a great asset for civilian missions, such as formeteorology or cartography purposes.
(13) CL-289 The latest version of the well-known CL-289 has just beendeveloped. A fast reconnaissance drone, the CL-289 has been in servicewithin the French and German forces since 1992. In January 2001, EADSDornier was awarded a contract for the modernisation of 160 CL-289s inboth countries. The new CL-289 can land with precision of 50 metres.These upgraded units was delivered in 2006.
(14)ORKA 1200, This multi-mission helicopter system is dedicated toreconnaissance and the protection of maritime and air-landenvironments. The ORKA system includes a payload EO/IR as well as amaritime surveillance radar and a secured high speed data link. Withsuch advanced equipment, ORKA offers navies both naval supremacy andland attack operations capabilities. Its high payload capability (180kg) and autonomy (8 hours) make it possible to carry out imagery orelectromagnetic intelligence missions in a selected area.
(15) EuroHawk EADS DSS and Northrop Grumman are teaming up on the HALE(High Altitude Long Endurance) EuroHawk programme. In October 2003, theGlobal Hawk was successfully tested in-flight from the base ofNordholz, equipped with an EADS ELINT sensor. This reconnaissance andsurveillance system is dedicated to high-altitude and longenduranceflights. The German Ministry of Defence expressed its desire to replacethe Breguet Atlantic in service within the German navy with these UAVHALEs
(16) Eagle -1,and Eagle -2 UAV system has been developed by EADS, inorder to meet European requirements for strategic reconnaissance andsurveillance, in support of out-of area operations. Two versions wereplanned – Eagle 1, powered by a 115 hp Rotax 914 engine which can flyat 25,000' and the Eagle 2 turboprop powered version (1200 hp PT6Aengine), designed for 24 hours operation at 45,000'. Fully integratedinto modern NATO C4I infrastructures, EAGLE become a major assetnetwork centric operations of the French army. It is also be fieldedwith other NATO members. The aircraft can be deployed from airstripswith runways as short as 600 meters (eagle 1) and 1,000 m' (Eagle 2).
(17) DER or Bourdon Tecknisolar Seniof France has been devel- opingsolar power UAVs, the creation of a 3.5kg electric drone fitted with acolour camera which sends real time video images to a ground basedscreen. The screen is integrated into either a back pack, case or imagereceiving hehnet, all of which are solar pow- ered and totallyautonomous. It is intended for use by Mili- tary Commando Units, TaskForces and Military Scouts etc (18) Libellule Libellule, a highaltitude drone, is able to reach alti-tudes of 25 to 30km. Propelled bysolar energy, this stealth drone is able to manoeuvre around apre-defined area for several weeks without the need for any humanintervention
(19) Buteo Called Buteo, this electric apparatus is neither an aero-plane nor a helicopter but both. It is conceived as a prototype of ahybrid of an aeroplane and a helicopter. It is capable of hovering likea helicopter but also has the added dynamic flight manoeuvres of anaeroplane. It has been designed for mine detection, charge placement,identification of radioac- tive sources around nuclear power stationsand for aerial pho- tography through the windows of high rise buildings
(20) Portable Video Re-transmission Coccinelle Weighing between 280 and400grams, named Coccinelle or Ladybird, this drone is intended forforces of law and order, police, fire fighters etc. Particularly quiet,this drone is equipped with a colour camera and transmits real timevideo images to a ground based back pack or case with integratedscreen. Both the back pack and case are solar pow- ered and thereforecompletely autonomous. it cannot be detected by mag- netic waves, or byinfrared waves as it does not heat up, often friction in the air at acertain speed creates heat, or by laser beams because it neitherreflects nor reverberates. Totally si- lent and non-polluting the droneis 1.8m long, has a wing span of 4.2m and weighs 2.5kg. This is adevelopment of the Libelulle high altitude drone.
The launch of the joint development of two demonstrators oflatest-generation UAVs. The first one is the reconnaissance UAVEuroMALE, in which EADS is the prime contractor (in partnership withThales, which will jointly ensure with EADS the development of groundsegment). Dassault Aviation will look after the development of the airsegment and the system architecture. The second is a technologicaldemonstrator of an unmanned combat air vehicle (UCAV) called Neuron,for which Dassault Aviation has been chosen as the prime contractor.EADS will back Dassault in this programme in the following areas:
Israel is leader of UAVs industry after Yuma Kapor war Israel lost toomany aircraft due to SAM missile batteries in war so they choose,Tadiran and IAI found themselves in bitter competition for militarybattlefield UAV , Israel has 6 UAVs producing comapines (1) IAI(Malat)produce 9 UAVs Model(2)Elbit (Silver Arrow) produce 6 UAVsmodel(3)Aeronautic producing 6 UAVs model(4)EMIT Producing 4model(5)Rafael producing 2 UAVs model (6) Top-Vision Produce 1 UAVSmodel. The Netherlands is not the only nation to employ Israeliunmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in foreign occupation. They are alsoutilized by Canadian, US, UK and Australian forces in Afghanistan andIraq .
(1)IMI Mastiff It was demonstrated to Tadiran and military brass inearly 1974. Tadiran management was sold on the idea and gave Ellis acontract to develop an operational system named "Mastiff .The Israelimilitary began to buy more Mastiffs (2)Top I Vision Casper 250TheCasper 250 is a cost effective solution for Homeland security - lowintensity conflict Day or Night operations. It can be deployed anywherein a very short time, the system operation is simple and the HumanMachine Interface (HMI) is user-friendly. The Casper 250 is alsoequipped with specially patented wing architecture and landing method,which increases significantly its survivability and decreases the LCC(Life Cycle Cost).
(3)Top I Vision Aerostat (4)IAI Pioneer (with the USA) Mazlat and AAIdeveloped the Pioneer, The Pioneer a derivative of the SCOUT, was thefirst UAV System to be purchased by a foreign customer - the US Navy Itis still in operational use. Battle proven during the Gulf War and inBosnia and Iraq
(5)RQ-5 Hunter (with the USA) The Hunter is a heavy tactical UAV systemfor surveillance, reconnaissance, target acquisition, artilleryadjustment and damage assessment. Capable of being upgraded to E-Hunter(Extended Endurance Platform) Capable of carrying multiple payloadssimultaneously
(6)IAI General (7)IAI Harpy The MBD missile division of IAI sellsanother UAV, the "Harpy", which is an antiradar loitering attack drone.It patrols over a battlefield, waiting for somebody to turn on a radar,and then dives into it, destroying it with a blast-fragmentationwarhead. The Harpy is in service with the Israeli Defense Forces, aswell as Turkey, India, China, Taiwan, and the Republic of Korea areusing.
(8)IAI Herod (9)IAI Heron / Machatz-1, reconnaissance Heron TP is anadvanced, multi-puropse MALE UAV system with an extended performanceenvelope and a variety of payloads capability.The Heron TP was designedas a multi-purpose, multi-system platform to address local andinternational customers' needs and to perform a variety of strategicmissions with a high level of reliability, The HERON I is a MediumAltitude Long Endurance (MALE) UAV system for strategic and tacticalmissions
(10)IAI Ranger The Ranger is a tactical UAV system for use in extremeweather conditions for surveillance, reconnaissance, targetacquisition, artillery adjustment and damage assessment. It wasdeveloped and manufactured in cooperation with the Swiss company RUAGAerospace
(11)IAI Scout while IAI came up with a competitor with the appropriatename of "Scout" and sold it to the military as well. The Scout, alsoknown as "Zahavan (Oriole)", had a similar configuration to theMastiff. (12)IAI Searcher The Mastiff and Scout remained in servicewith the Israeli Army until the early 1990s, when they were replaced bythe Malat "Searcher", also known as the "Meyromit (High Flier)".
(13)IAI Skylite - Canister Launched mini-UAV system Skylite A and skylite B Rafael's Skylite is man-portable, canister launched,electrically powered loitering surveillance and reconnaissance platformoffering superior performance, autonomy, availability and flexibilityThe system can operate in difficult weather conditions, including highwinds that weighs 6kg and is 12cm in diameter (14)Eitan (UCAV)
(15)Elbit Hermes 450 Elbit Systems’ Hermes 450 is classed as a MALE(Medium Altitude, Long Endurance) UAV, though it’s smaller thancompetitors like General Atomics’ MQ-1 Predator and Israel AerospaceIndustries’ Heron. The Hermes 450 is best known for serving as thebasis for Britain’s Mk450B Watchkeeper program, which is currentlyEurope’s largest; meanwhile, the standard Mk450 version is serving asan interim contracted UAV with British forces in Iraq and Afghanistan.The Hermes 450 also serves in IsraelThe company also expects totest-fly its Predator-sized Hermes 900 model in late 2008 or early2009, after a delay of almost a year. Hermes 450s are operated by theU.S. Department of Defense Joint Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Test andEvaluation Program at the Naval Air Station Fallon, and two Hermes450s were tested by the U.S. Border Patrol in 2004. The Hermes 450 isthe basis of the British Army Watchkeeper WK450 development whichstarted in July 2005 in conjunction with Thales.
(16)Elbit Skylark Elbit’s Skylark-I mini-UAV has become a popularchoice for portable “over the hill” surveillance, as nations likeIsrael, Australia, Canada, France, Mexico, Sweden, et. al. adopt it forbattlefield use Skylark I comes in 2 versions. The standard Skylark Iis launched by hand, The new Skylark I-LE (long endurance) increasesflight time from 1.5 hours to 3 hours, with a mission range “greaterthan 15 km.” The larger Skylark II cannot be launched by hand, like itscounterparts; it must use a rail launcher instead. Skylark II competesin the lower tier of the conventional UAV market, alongside models likeTextron AAI’s RQ-7 Shadow, IAI’s I-View 250, et. al.
(17)Aeronautics Defense Systems - Aerostar Since its introduction in2000, the Aerostar has broken several world records and setunprecedented standards for reliability, life cycle, ease of operation,logistics, endurance, operational range, payload options, groundsystems interfaces, cost-effectiveness, and more. Currently operationalin four continents All modern police forces use fixed wing aircraft andhelicopters to detect traffic violations, pursue criminals and hunt formissing persons. The Aerostar UAV System will be available to supportUS Mexican southern Border Surveillance missions and is currentlydeployed in a number of countries for border surveillance and criticalasset/ force protection
(18)Aeronautics Defense Systems - DominatorThe Dominator MALE UAV is aMulti-mission platform that was designed for Medium Altitude LongEndurance missions. The Dominator UAV system presents extraordinaryendurance, operational flexibility and is suited for operation indifferent climate zones. Capabilities Cruising speed – 90–150 knotsService ceiling – 25,000 feet , Wingspan – 8m Length – 8m
(19)Aeronautics Defense Systems - Aerolight The Aerolight UAV is aclose range and training UAV platform developed and manufactured byAeronautics Defense Systems. It is used for close range ISR missions,training, and testing of experimental payloads. In Addition to aconventional wheeled Take Off & Landing capabilities, The systemcan be launched by a catapult and can be recovered by a precisionPara-foil recovery system. The system is in use by the IsraeliAirForce, the US Navy and additional customers worldwide
(20)Aeronautics Defense Systems - Orbiter The Orbiter Mini UAV SystemIs a compact and lightweight system designed for use in Military andHomeland Security missions. The system presents the ultimate solutionfor Over The Hill reconnaissance missions, Low Intensity Conflicts andUrban warfare operations as well as any close range ISR mission. TheOrbiter System can be transported, assembled, launched and operated byjust two persons after minimal training. The entire Orbiter System fitsinto one backpack and no additional personnel need to befielded.Assembled in less than 10 minutes
(21)EMIT Blue Horizon 2 Fully integrated weapon system capable ofcapturing and reporting intelligence data in real-time and day/nightoperation over a pre-determined target zoneSingapore Technologies hassigned a 814 million contract with Israel’s Emit Aviation Consultancyfor the new Blue Horizon UAV (22)EMIT SparrowThe Sparrow is aretrievable, modestly sized UAV, equipped with an Electro-optical,day/night, stabilized payload. It's advanced avionics provide a fullymanual to fully autonomous flight, combined with surveillance andrecognition capabilities. A typically configured, fully fueled Sparrowweighs approx. 45 Kg, carries a mission specific payload of 12 Kg. andcruises at 60-70 Kts. for over 4hr. The UAV can be fitted with a largerfuel tank to facilitate extended flight duration.
(23)EMIT ButterflyThe butterfly UAV is a Paramotor glider (Paraglider) based UAV.
High payload carrying capacity. Operational simplicity. Logisticalsimplicity. Easy to maintain. Cost effective. Payload day/night electrooptical, up to 230 Kg ,speed 30knots IAS Crews 2 GCS operator, 1launcher/recovery operator
(24) 1-View Malat also developed a smaller UAV known as the "I-View",with fixed landing gear, a pusher propeller, and an inverted-vee tail.Australia placed a large order for I-Views in 2006 but ended upcancelling the contract in 2008. Nobody else seems to have adoptedit.(25) The Bird-Eye 400 and bird eye 600 system is an optimal solutionfor low echelon forces to obtain real time intelligence, independent ofhigher echelon sources. It is Man-portable with fast field deploymentby a team of two
(26) Mosquito The MOSQUITO is a Micro UAV System, providing real-timeimagery data in restricted urban areas. The MOSQUITO carries aminiature video camera. The system offers a fully automated flight withGPS based "in flight" way point control. Missions are planned usingdigital maps referencing and wiewed on a computer monitor.The MOSQUITOis hand or bungee launched and lands on it's belly.
(27)Aero SKY Aerosky is a lightweight tactical UAV (70 kg take-offweight) capable of operating at a range of 100 km sustaining afive-hour mission. Maximum operational altitude is 15,000 feet. Itcarries a 18-kg payload. Aeronautics have developed several lightweight (28) Tail-sitter The Tail-Sitter UAV is a V-TOL platformdeveloped by Aeronautics around 2000. It was designed to perform theunique flight profile of vertical Take-off and Landing, air rotation,and horizontal flight. The Tail-Sitter's flight profile combines theadvantages of taking-off and landing in rough/crowded/field/urbanconditions, and the endurance/range of horizontal flying platforms
The Air Force has put UAVs on top of its wish list. Next year, 52 of the 93 aircraft the Air Force will purchase are unmanned.
Likewise, the demand for pilots and sensor operators grows as the AirForce looks to establish 50 Predator and Reaper orbits —round-the-clock combat air patrols — by 2012. That’s an increase of 17orbits from the Air Force’s current total, which will require 1,100crews of one pilot and one sensor operator. The service now has 474crews, according to Air Combat Command.
Two officer pilots and four enlisted sensor operators sit in theMulti-Aircraft Control system — referred to as the MAC — which can flyup to four missions at a time.
By 2016, the Air Force wants to have 50 orbits — round-the-clock combatair patrols — flown solely by the MQ-9 Reaper, the highly lethalunmanned aerial vehicle. the Air Force flies 33 combat air patrols inIraq and Afghanistan; 31 of those are Predators, two are Reapers
During the first six months of 2008, Air Force planes dropped 1,853bombs over Afghanistan — more than were dropped in all of 2006. Lastmonth, they dropped 505 bombs over Afghanistan, while Air Force planesdropped only 29 bombs over Iraq.
UAVs are starting to replace spy satellites in the major espionageagencies. The CIA has long had its own fleet of Predator UAVs, and nowthe NGA (National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, which analyses stuff,makes maps, and the like) and NRO (National Reconnaissance Office,which builds and operates spy satellites) want more UAVs as well. Thesudden NRO enthusiasm for UAVs. Places like Afghanistan and Iraq, UAVsare cheaper, and more useful, than satellites
The skillful employment of US Air Force, Army, and Naval air power (toinclude greatly expanded use of armed and reconnaissance UAV’s :Predator, Reaper, Global hawk, and Shadow) has narrowly prevented theTaliban from massing and achieving local tactical
Victories over isolated and outnumbered US and coalition forces in the East and South.